Conquests

Genghis Khan had a passion to unite the world under one nation Holcombe says “Genghis believed that the sky god Tanggeri had given him a mission to bring the entire world under one sword.”

East Asia

Battle of Jin

Battle of Jin (Taken from allempires.com / empires/mongol)

In 1207, Genghis led his armies against the kingdom of Xia which contained the Xi Xia, Jin and Song Dynasty. In 1211, Genghis Khan’s armies struck the Jin Dynasty in northern China to obtain their rice fields for future wealth. By 1215, they’ve entered the capital city of Jin and defeating it in 1234. By 1279, the Song Dynasty fell to the Mongols.The Mongols did not succeed in invading Japan but they forced Korea to become a vassal after attacking them from 1231 to 1251. They also destroyed the Tibetan Kingdom of Dali in 1253. Mongol’s greatest conquest was taking over the Yuan Dynasty in China in 1271.

 

 

Southeast Asia

Kublai Khan’s Yuan Dynasty invaded Burma in 1277, 1283 and 1287, resulting in Burma’s capitulation and the disintegration of the Pagan Kingdom. The invasions of Vietnam and Java resulted in defeat for the Mongols due to heat and unfamiliar climate. The Mongol did create a dent in the Vietnam population, so to prevent future deaths, Vietnam agreed to pay tribute to Kublai Khan.

Central Asia

After conquering the Jin Dynasty, Genghis initiated his invasion in Central Asia starting with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic confederations. He then continued expansion of the empire via conquest of the Kara-Khitan and the Khwarazmian dynasty from 1216 to 1218.

West Asia

Siege of Baghdad

Siege of Baghdad (Source from Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Division orientale, Supplément persan 1113, fol. 180v-181)

Their conquests in West Asia are to known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, Caucasus and Turkey. The most important battles were the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 where they sacked the city which for 500 years had been the center of Islamic power; and the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when the Muslim Egyptian Mamluks were for the first time able to stop the Mongol advance at Ain Jalut in the southern part of the Galilee. These battles included the captured Chinese engineers in order to build the siege machines.

Europe

The Mongols invaded and destroyed Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus, before invading Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria, and others. From 1237 to 1240, the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of Eastern Europe with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov in Russia. Batu, one of Genghis Khan’s grandsons, led the invasion of Europe. He established his empire as the the Blue Horde. Batu’s two brothers, Orda and Shiban, who also participated in the campaign also formed their Khanates. Orda’s Khanate became known as the White Horde, located east to Batu’s Blue Horde. Being brothers from the Golden Clan, they merged their Khanate to become the Golden Horde.

Conquests over a century

Conquests over a century

The vast land of Mongolians has been separated into four independent sections: the Golden Horde in the area of Russia, the Il-khanate in the area of Persia, the Chaghadai Khanate in Central Asia and the Khanate of the Great Khan in East Asia.

The four regions of Mongolian Empire by 1294

The four regions of Mongolian Empire by 1294 (Taken from edmaps.com/html/china.html)

 

Vassals

  • Russia states (Republic of Novgorod, Pskov and Smolensk)
  • Second Bulgarian Empire
  • Kingdom Of Serbia
  • Vietnam
  • Khmer Empire (Cambodia)
  • Suhkhothai Kingdom (Thailand)
  • Korea
  • India
  • Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli (Crusader States)
  • Empire of Trebizond(One of the Byzantine Empire)
Sources 
1 Saunders, John Joseph. The History of The Mongol Conquests Univ of Pennsylvania Press, 2001

2 Holcombe,Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press, 2011

3 "The Mongol Empire." - All Empires. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2014. <http://www.allempires.com/article/?q=The_Mongol_Empire>.

4 Turnbull, Stephen R. Essential Histories: Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400 Hardback ed New York: Routledge, 2004

 

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